A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN SCORPION BITE TREATMENT IN INDIA
Following snake bite cases, scorpion bite is a common global public health problem including India. Despite various species of scorpions, only few of these can be potentially lethal to humans. In India, the annual number of scorpion stings cases exceeds 1.23 million, of which over 32,250 may be fatal. This can be attributed to various hurdles in the scorpion bite treatment like poor health services, difficult and untimely transportation facilities, wrong traditional beliefs, delay in anti-scorpion venom administration which ultimately leads to substantial amount of mortality and morbidity. Clinical features of the patients stung with scorpion are generally abnormalities indicative of cardiac, respiratory, autonomic and metabolic changes and deaths can be due to multi-system failure. Administration of anti-scorpion venom serum (AScVs) is the only specific treatment available in India but has many limitations like species specificity, difficulty in availability, affordability and ideal storage conditions. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention in this aspects. Wide arrays of the plants and their active principles have been evaluated for pharmacological properties useful in the treatment of scorpion bite. However, numerous unexplored plants are claimed to have definite role in this issue need to be further studied. This review is an attempt to present a comprehensive account of numerous Indian herbal plants used in the treatment of scorpion bite in any forms like topical application for local pain relief, oral formulation for pain relief and venom neutralization purpose.Â
Chippaux JP and Goyffon M. Epidemiology of scorpionism: a globa appraisal. Acta Trop 2008; 107:71-9.
Mahadevan S, Choudhury P, Puri RK, Srinivasan S. Scorpion envenomation and the role of lytic cocktail in its management. Indian J Pediatr 1981; 48: 757-61.
Muller GJ. Scorpionism in South Africa. A report of 42 serious envenomations. South Afr Med J 1993; 83: 405- 11.
Rajarajeswari G, Sivaprakasam S, Viswanathan J. Morbidity and mortality pattern in scorpion sting- a review of 68 cases. J Indian Med Assoc 1979; 73: 123-26.
Ismail M. The scorpion envenoming syndrome. Toxicon 1995; 33: 825-28.
Biswal N, Charan MV, Betsy M, Nalini P, Srinivasan S, Mahadevan S. Management of scorpion envenomation. Pediatrics Today 1999; 2: 420-26.
D.B. Bastawade, S.S.Jadhav, R.M. Sharma. Scorpionida. Zoological survey of India, Western Regional Centre, Pune.
Erfati P. Epidemiology, symptomatology and treatment of buthinae stings. In: Arthopod Venoms. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Ed. Bettini S. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1978; pp 312-15.
H S Bawaskar, P H Bawaskar. Scorpion Sting: Update. JAPI January 2012; 60: 46-55.
Murthy KR, Shenoy R, Vaidyanathan P, Kelkar K, Sharma N, Birevar N, et al. Insulin reverses haemodynamic changes and pulmonary edema in children stung by the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1991;85:651-7.
Yugandhar B, Murthy KR, Sattar SA. Insulin administration in severe scorpion envenoming. J Venom Anim Toxins 1999;5:200-19.
Bawaskar HS, Bawaskar PH. Utility of scorpion antivenin in the management of severe Mesobuthus tamulus (Indian red scorpion) envenoming at rural setting. J Assoc Physicians India 2007;55:14-21.
Krishnan A, Sonawane RV, Karnad DR. Captopril in the treatment of cardiovascular manifestations of Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock)envenomation. J Assoc Physicians India 2007; 55:22-6.
Deshpande SB, Pandey R, Tiwari AK. Pathophysiological approach to the management of scorpion envenomation. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2008;52:311-4.
Bagchi S, Deshpande SB. Indian red scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom-induced augmentation of cardiac reflexes is mediated through the mechanisms involving kinins in urethane anesthetized rats. Toxicon 1998;36:309-20.
RC Kankonkar, DG Kulkurni, CB Hulikavi. Preparation of a potent anti-scorpion-venom-serum against the venom of red scorpion (Buthus tamalus). JPGM 1998 ; 44(4): 85-92.
Ranjana I. Brahmane, Swanand S. Pathak, Vikrant V. Wanmali, Kartik J Salwe. et.al. Partial in vitro and in vivo red scorpion venom neutralization activity of Andrographis paniculata. Pharmacognosy Research.January 2011; 3(1):44-48.
C. Alagesaboopathi. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used as Medicine by the Kurumba Tribals in Pennagaram Region, Dharmapuri District of Tamil Nadu, India. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. 2011; 2(1):141-2.
Chandra Prakash Kala. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2009, 5:20.
Rai R, Nath R. Use of medicinal plants by traditional herbal healers in Central India. Indian Forester 2005; 131(3): 463-68.
Shubhangi Pawar, D.A.Patil. Some more antivenin folk claims from Jalgaon district (Maharashtra), India. Life sciences Leaflets 2012;3:7-11.
M Ayyanar, S. Ignacimuthu. Medicinal plants used by the tribals of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu to treat poisonous bites and skin diseases. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge July 2005;4(3): 229-36.
Gunjan Guha, Venkatadri Rajkumar, Lazar Mathew, R. Ashok Kumar. The antioxidant and DNA protection potential of Indian tribal medicinal plants. Turk J Biol 2011;35: 233-42.
Udayan PS, Satheesh G, Tushar KV et al. Medicinal plants used by the Malayali tribe of Servarayan hills, Yercad, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. Zoos' Print Journal 2006;21:2223-24.
Rajkumar V, Guha G, Ashok Kumar R et al. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Bergenia ciliata rhizome. Rec. Nat. Prod. 2010;4(1):38-48.
S Ignacimuthu, M Ayyanar, Sankara Sivaraman K. Ethnobotanical investigations among tribes in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu (India). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006;2:25.
Beena Sharma. Health awareness in women with the use of traditional medicinal plants in district Raipur of Chhattisgarh. Journal of Ecobiotechnology 2011;3(11):15-17.
Rajiv Rai and Vijendra Nath. Use of Medicinal Plants by Traditional Herbal Healers in
Central India. Division of Biodiversity and Sustainable Management Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur.
Nunthawun Uawonggul et al. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus
scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;103:201-07.
C Alagesaboopathi. Ethnobotanical Studies on useful Plants of Kanjamalai Hills of
Salem district of Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011;3(5):532-39.
Mukta Tiwari, R.H. Singh. Plants of medicinal importance from Halia block of district Mirzapur Uttar Pradesh. Life sciences Leaflets 2012;10:100-22.
Prabhu et al. Folk medicinal plants for snake bites, scorpion stings and dog bites in Eastern ghats of Kolli hills, Tamil Nadu, India. IJRAP Sep-Oct 2012;3(5):696-700.
R. Sivranjani, K. Ramakrishnan. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in trating skin diseases in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. IRJP 2012;3(5):201-4.
D.A.Patil. Indian ethnomedicines: Origins in the perspective of doctrine of signature.
Life sciences Leaflets 2012;1:6-15.
Orwa C, Mutua A , Kindt R , Jamnadass R, Simons A. 2009. Agroforestree Database: A tree reference and selection guide version 4.0.
C. Alagesaboopathi. Ethnomedicinal plants and their utilization by villagers in Kumaragiri Hills of Salem District of Tamilnadu, India. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 2009;6(3):222-27.
Ajit Kumar Das, BK Dutta, GD Sharma. Medicinal plants used by different tribes of Cachar district, Assam. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. July 2008;7(3): 446-54.
Achuta Nand Shukla, Sharad Srivastava, A K S Rawat. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. July 2010;9(1):191-202.
KL Meena, BL Yadav. Some ethnomedicinal plants used by Garasia tribe of district Sirohi, Rajsthan. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. April 2011;10(2):354-57.
Chellaiah Muthu , Muniappan Ayyanar , Nagappan Raja, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006,2:43.
Sarang P Lakhmale1, Rabinarayan Acharya, Nikita Yewatkar. Ethnomedicinal claims on antivenom activity of certain fruit and seed drugs- A review. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci.2012;1(1):21-29.
Pullaiah T. Medicinal Plants in India, Vol.1. New Delhi: Regency Publication; 2002.
Maheshwari JK. Ethnobotany in South Asia, Maheshwari JK, editor. Jodhpur: Scientific Publisher; 1996.
Maheshwari JK. Ethnobotany and Medicinal Plants of Indian Subcontinent. Jodhpur: Scientific Publishers (India); 2003.
Dwivedi Sumeet, Shrivastava Satyaendra , Dubey Darshan and Kapoor Shweta. Herbal Remedies Used in the Treatment of Scorpion Sting and Snake Bite from the Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2009;13:326-28.
Singh E. A., Kamble S. Y., Bipinraj N. K., Jagtap S. D. Medicinal plants used by Thakar tribes of Raigad district, Maharashtra for the treatment of snake- bite and scorpion-bite. IJPR 2012;2(2):26-35.
S. Shanmugam, N. Gayathri, B. Sakthivel, S. Ramar, K. Rajendran. Plants used as Medicine by Paliyar Tribes of Shenbagathope in Virudhunagar District of Tamilnadu, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2009;13:370-78.
Bhosle S. V., Ghule V. P., Aundhe D. J., Jagtap S. D. Ethnomedical Knowledge of Plants used by the Tribal people of Purandhar in Maharashtra, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2009; 13:1353-61.
Bhargav Bhide1, Rabinarayan Acharya. Uses of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.): An Ethnomedicinal Perspective. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci. 2012;1(3):65-72.
Silja VP, Samitha Varma K, Mohanan KV. Ethnomedicinal Plant Knowledge of the Mullu Kuruma tribe of Wayanad District, Kerala. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2008;7(4):604-12.
S. Kahleel Basha, G.Sudarshanam. Ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants used by sugalis of yerramalais in kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Phytomedicine 2010; (2):349-53.
K.R.Kirthikar, P.D Basu, "Indian Medicinal Plants", The Indian Press, Allahabad, p 101, (1918).
R. Rajesh, K.Chitra, Padmaa M Paarakh. Aerva lanata (Linn) Juss. ex Schult.- An overview. IJNPR March 2011;2(1):5-9.
S.Y. Kamble et al. Studies on plants used in traditional medicine by Bhilla tribe of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. July 2010;9(3):591-98.
K Venkata Ratnam, RR Venkata Raju. Folk remedies for insect bites from Gundlabrahmeswaram Wild Life Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. July 2008;7(3):436-37.
SR Ghatapanadi, Nicky Johnson, AH Rajasab. Documentation of folk knowledge on medicinal plants of Gulbarga district, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. April 2011;10(2):349-53.
Kumar Avinash Bharati & B.L. Sharma. Plants used as Ethnoveterinary Medicines in Sikkim Himalayas. Ethnobotany Research & Applications 2012;10:339-56.
Ajay Kumar Meena, Parveen Bansal, Sanjiv Kumar. Plants-herbal wealth as a potential source of ayurvedic drugs. Asian Journal of Traditional Medicines 2009;4 (4):152-70.
Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. NISCIR, CSIR, Delhi 2002.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1, Govt. Of India, Deptt. of ISM&H, published by the controller of publications, Delhi.
Srimal RC. Turmeric: A brief review of medicinal properties Fitoterapia 1997;68(6): 483-93.
Samy PR, Iushparaj PN, Gopalakrishnakone PA. Compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda, Bioinformation, 2008.
Subhose V, Narian A. Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in Ayurveda. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderbad 2005,35:83.
Dangar RD et al., Phytopharmacological Potential Of Prosopis Spicigera Linn. American Journal of PharmTech Research 2012;2(2):45-52.
Ilahi Mujawar. Ethnobotany of Mallikarjun hills of Walwa from Sangli district (Maharashtra). Life sciences Leaflets 2012;10:73-83.
V.P.Silja, K Samitha Varma, KV Mohanan. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge of Mullu Kuruma tribes of Wayanad district, Kerala. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. October 2008;7(4): 604-12.
Sravan Prasad. M. et al. Medicinal plants used by ethnic practioners in Malgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. IJRAP 2010;1(2):493-96.
Hossain MM. Therapeutic orchids: traditional uses and recent advances-An overview. Fitoterapia. Mar 2011;82(2):102-40.
Izquierdo AM et al. Scorpion antivenom effect of micropropagated Aristolochia elegans. Pharm Biol Aug. 2010;48(8):891-6.
Memmi A. et al. Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis. 2007;84(1-4):49-55.
Copyright (c) 2016 Mintage journal of pharmaceutical and medical sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.