AFLATOXINS - ANALYSIS AND RISK MANAGEMENT

Rumenov Yuliana Tasheva-petkova, valentina Christova bagdassarian, Lyubomir angelov Livanov

Abstract


Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze and assess the risk associated with the presence of aflatoxins in food and feed. Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and they are distributed worldwide. Conclusions: Aflatoxins are a potential danger for both animal and human health. Attention should be paid to the potentially dangerous synergistic or additive effects on animal health arising from the presence of more than one mycotoxin in feed. Given the ubiquity of mycotoxins in the world, is also necessary to develop an effective program of risk management, which will be crucial to reduce costs and economic losses in farms associated with the risk of pollution

Full Text:

PDF

References


Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed. Official Journal of the European Union., 2002.

Aspen cancer conference. Mechanisms of toxicity, carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and cancer therapy. Abstracts of the 16th Aspen Cancer Conference. 2001. July15-18, 2001. Aspen Colorado.

Azziz-Baumgartner E., Lindblade K., Gieseker K., Rogers H.S., Kieszak S., Njapau H., Schleicher R., McCoy L.F., Misore A., DeCock K., Rumin C., Slutsker L. Case-control study of an acute aflatoxicosis outbreak, Kenya, 2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2005, 113 (12):1779-83.

Bennett J. W., Klich M. Mycotoxins. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2003, 16, 497-516.

Bowers J., Brown B., Springer J., Tollefson L., Lorentzen R., Henry S. Risk assessment for aflatoxin: an evaluation based on the multistage model. Risk Anal. 1993, 13(6): 637-642.

CHM 110-Chemistry and Issues in the Environment, availablein:http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/onlcourse/chm110/outlines/doserespon.html

Crespi C.L., Penman B.W., Steimel D.T, Gelboin H.V., Gonzlez. F.J. The development of a human cell line stably expressing human CYP3A4: role in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 and comparison to CYP1A2 and CYP2A3. Carcinogenesis 1991, 12(2):355-9.

EFSA. Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission related to Aflatoxin B1 as undesirable substance in animal feed. The EFSA Journal 2004, 39: 1-27.

Essigmann J.M., Croy R.G., Nadzan A.M., Busby W.F., Reinhold V.N., Buchi G., Wogan G.N. Structural identification of the major DNA adduct formed by aflatoxin B1 in vitro. Proct Natl Acad Sci USA 1977, 74(5):1870-4.

Food and Drug administration http://www.fda.gov/

Forrester L.M., Neal G.E., Judah D.J., Glancey M.J., Wolf C.R. Evidence for involvement of multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 in aflatoxin B1 metabolism in human liver. Proc Natl. Acad Sci USA 1990, 87(21):8306-10.

IARC. Aflatoxins. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 2003, 56:245-395.

Kensler T.W., Eqner P.A., Davidson N.E., Roebuck B.D., Pikul A., Groopman J.D. Modulation of aflatoxin metabolism, aflatoxin-N7-guanine formation and hepatic tumorigenesis in rats fed ethoxyquin: role of induction of glutathione S-transferases. Cancer Res. 1986, 46(8):3924-31.

Kirk G.D., Bah E., Montesano R. Molecular epidemiology of human liver cancer: Insights into etiology, pathogenesis and prevention from The Gambia. Carcinogenesis 2006, 27:2070-82.

Kuiper-Goodman, T., Uncertainties in the risk assessment of three mycotoxins: aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1990. 68(7):1017-24.

Kuiper-Goodman T. Risk assessment to humans of mycotoxins in animal-derived food products. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1991, 33(4):325-32.

Liu Y., Wu F. Global Burden of Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Risk Assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2010, 118:818-24.

Pharmaceutical Safety Evaluation and Regulation. Methodological advanced impacting on drug registration available Prandini A., Tansini G., Sigolo S., Fillipi L., Laporta M., Piva G. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009, 47(5):984-91.

Probst C., Njapau H., Cotty P.J. Outbreak of an Acute Aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004: Identification of the Causal Agent. Applied and environmental Microbiology 2007, 73(8): 2762–2764

RASSF, Annual report, 2011. Available in:www.ес.europa.eu

Regulation (EC) 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety.

Riskowerte und Extraposition. Extrapolierte Wirkchwelle fur Krebs (Benchmarkmodelierung), available in: www.umwelt-online.de

Sabbioni G., Skipper P.L., Buchi G., Tannenbaum S.R. Isolation and characterization of the major serum albumin adduct formed by aflatoxin B1 in vivo in rats. Carcinogenesis 1987, 8(6):819-24.

Scientific report submitted to EFSA. Modelling, predicting and mapping the emergence of aflatoxins in cereals in the EU due to climate change. 2012. Available in: www.efsa.europa.eu

Shimada T., Guengerich F.P. Evidence for cytochrom P-450 NF, the nifedipine oxidase, being the principal enzyme involved in the bioactivation of aflatoxins in human liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86, 462-5,

Siame B.A., Nawa I.N. Mycotoxin contamination in food commodities in Eastern and Southern Africa. In: Leslie J.F., Bandyopadhyay R., Visconti. A. Mycotoxins: detection methods, management, public health and agricultural trade. CABI Publishing, 2008:117-125.

Spanjer M.C, Rensen P., Scholten J. LC-MS/MS multi-method for mycotoxins after single extraction, with validation data for peanut, pistachio, wheat, maize, cornflakes, raisins and figs. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008; 25(4):472-8

Strosnider H., Azziz-Baumgartner E., Banziger M., Bhat R.V., Breiman R., Brune M., DeCock K., Dilley A., Groopman J., Hell K., Henry S.H., Jeffers D., Jolly C., Jolly P., Kibata G.N., Lewis L., Liu X., Luber G., McCoy L., Mensah P., Miraglia M., Misore A., Njapau H., Ong C., Onsongo M.T.K., Page S.W., Park D., Patel M., Phillips T., Pineiro M., Pronczuk J., Schurz Rogers H., Rubin C., Sabino M., Schaafsma A., Shephard G., Stroka J., Wild C., Williams J.T., Wilson D. Workgroup Report: Public Health Strategies for Reducing Aflatoxin Exposure in Developing Countries Environmental Health Perspectives 2006, 114:1989-1903.

Trucksess M.W. Rapid analysis (thin layer chromatographic and immunochemical methods) for mycotoxins in foods and feeds). In: de Koe WJ, Samson RA, van Egmond HP, Gilbert J, Sabino M, eds. Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins in Perspective at the Turn of the Millennium, W.J. de Koe, Wageningen, The Netherlands 2001:29–40.

Wheeler J.S., Chou S. Consideration and procedures in the derivation of ATSDR minimal risk levels Vaccine 2002, 20(3): S51-S55.

WHO, 2008. World Health Statistics (2008). WHO Press, Geneva, available in: http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/EN_WHS08_Full.pdf

Wu F. The global burden of disease caused by foodborne aflatoxin. WHO Commissioned Report, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). 2010.

Alexander J., Benford D., Boobis A., Eskola M. et all. Risk assessment of contaminants in food and feet, Special issue, EFSA Journal 2012; 10 (10): s.1004. available in: www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/as1004.pdf

Dr. Daxaben N. Mehta Morphological changes in rabbits under alfatoxin induced toxaemia Mintage Journal of Pharmaceutical &Medical Sciences, 2013, 2(4):1-2.

Swathi J., Makendra K., Siwjanya K.M., Krishnasatya A. Evaluation of biologically active molecules isolated from obligate marine fungi Mintage Journal of Pharmaceutical &Medical Sciences 2013, 2(3):45-47.

Bbosa G.S., Kitya D., Lubega A., Ogwal-Okeng J., William W. Anokbonggo and David B. Kyegombe Review of the Biological and Health Effects of Aflatoxins on Body Organs and Body Systems Agricultural and Biological Sciences » "Aflatoxins - Recent Advances and Future Prospects", book edited by Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh, ISBN 978-953-51-0904-4, Published: January 23, 2013 under CC BY 3.0 license.

Assessing and managing risks are two distinct steps, each of which involves multiple decisions. Available in: http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/visual.php?shortname=risk_assessment

in:https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/set/LearningObjects/P3Project/module2/dr_ta_na.htm


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.