ALZHIEMER’S: AN UPDATE BASED ON CLINICAL SCIENCE

Nagavamsidhar Muthyala, Altaf M, Shivani P

Abstract


Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist and pathologist characterized Alzheimer's disease in 1907; chronic neurodegenerative disorder that progresses gradually affecting cognition and behavior earliest symptom is short term memory loss. With the progression of the disease, symptoms include mood swings, disorientation, problem with language, loss of motivation, behavioral issues. Gradually losing the  body functions which ultimately lead to death. In the year 2015, 1.9 million Deaths resulted due to dementia. The most common cause of Alzheimer’s disease is the combination of genetic, environmental factors and lifestyle that affects the brain over time. 5% of the Alzheimer’s disease is caused by specific genetic changes which will develop the disease. Alzheimer's disease is caused by brain cell death. In Alzheimer’s disease the total brain size reduces and the nerve cells, connections progressively decrease in the tissue. The brain affected with Alzheimer’s disease cannot be seen or tested in living conditions but, the small inclusions in the nerve tissue called plaques and tangles are shown in postmortem/autopsy. With the progress of Alzheimer’s disease to its last stages changes in the brain starts to affect physical functions such as swallowing bowel and bladder control and balance.


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