OCCURRENCE OF MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANT SALMONELLA FROM SNACKS IN CALABAR, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
Background: This was a study to investigate the occurrence of multiple drug resistant Salmonella from snacks in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
Methods: One hundred (100) samples from eateries and streets were cultured using standard methods for Salmonella infections diagnosis. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using agar-disc diffusion method.
Results: Out of 100 snacks examined with 50 each from the streets and 50 each from the eateries, 55 samples were found to habour Salmonella isolates. The distribution of Salmonella isolates in snacks from the streets was 76% (38/50) while that of the eateries was 34% (17/50). The antibiogram of Salmonella showed that Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Gentamycin, Streptomycin and Cephalexin were the most sensitive while Septrin was the most resistant.
Conclusion: This study observed the presence of multiple drug resistant Salmonella from snacks in Calabar. There is therefore need for good sanitary practices and control of the use of antibiotics.
Mead, P. S., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L. F., Bressee, J. S., Shapiro, C., Griffin, P. M. & Tauxe, R.V. (1999). Food-related Illness and Death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Disease, 5, 607-625.
Gomez, T. M., Motarjemi, Y., Miyagawa, S., Kafersetein, F. K. & Stohr, K. (1997). Foodborne Salmonellosis. World Health Statistics.
Dunne, E. F., Fey, P., Mostashari, F., Shillam, P., Wicklund, J., Miller, C., Holland, B., Stamey, R. & Barret, T. J. (2000). Emergence of Domestically Acquired Ceftriaxone Resistant Salmonella Infections with AMPC Bela lactamase. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 3151-3156.
Helms, M., Vastrup, P., Gerner-Smidt, P. & Mlbak, K. (2002). Excess mortality associated with antimicrobial drug resistant Salmonella typhimurium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 490-495.
Travers, K. & Barza, M. (2002). Morbidity of Infections caused by Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria. Clinical Infectious Disease, 34, 131-134.
Glynn, M. K., Bopp, C., Dewitt, W., Dabney, P., Mokhtar, M. & Angulo, F. J. (1998). Emergence of Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 Infections in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 1333-1338.
Threlfall, E. J., Ward, L. R. & Wilshaw, G. A. (2008). The Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance in Food-borne Bacteria. Journal of International Food Microbiology, 62, 1-5.
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Outbreak of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella Newport-United States. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report, 51, 545-548.
Kaye, K. S., Engemann, J. J., Frajmow, H. S. & Abrutyn, E. (2004). Pathogen Resistant to Antimicrobial Agents: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Management. Clinical Infectious Disease, 18, 467-511.
Bager, F., & R. Helmuth. 2001. Epidemiology of resistance of quinolones in Salmonella. Veterinary Research, 32, 285-290.
Anderson, A. D., Nelson, J. M., Rossiter, S. & Angulo, F. J. (2003). Public Health: Consequences of use of Antimicrobial Agents in Food Animals in the United States. Microbial Drug Resistance, 9, 329-373.
Scroeder, C. M., White, D. G. & Meng, J. (2004). Retail Meat and Poultry as a Reservoir of Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli. Food Microbiology, 21, 249-255.
White, D. G., Zhao, S., Sudler, R., Ayers, S., Friedman, S., Chen, S., McDermott, P. F., Wajner, D. D. & Meng, J. (2001). The Isolation of Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella from Ground Meats. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1147-1154.
Klotchlo, A. & Wallace, M. R. (2009). Salmonellosis: Infectious Disease. Medscape’s Continually Update Clinical Reference.
Baggesen, D. L., Wegener, H. C., Bager, F., Stege, H. & Christensen, J. (1996). Herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in Danish slaughter pigs determined by microbiological testing. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 26, 201-213.
Bailey, J. S. & Cox, N. A. (1992). Universal pre-enrichment broth for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Listeria in foods. Journal of Food Protection, 55, 256-259.
World Health Organization (2003). Salmonella typhi. Manual for the Laboratory Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacterial Pathogens of Public Health Importance in the Developing World, 113-120.
Cheesbrough, M. (2009). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries part 1 (2nd ed). Cambridge University Press, United State of America.
McGhie, E. J., Brown, L. C., Hume, P. J., Humphreys, D. & Koronakis, V. (2009). Salmonella Takes Control: Effector Driven Manipulation of the Host. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 12, 117-124.
Dworkin, M. S., Shoemaker, P. C., Goldoft, M. J. & Kobayashi, J. M. (2001). Reactive Arthritis and Reiter’s Syndrome following an Outbreak of Gastroenteritis caused Salmonella enteritidis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 33, 1010-1014.
Copyright (c) 2019 Mintage Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.