TRANSFERSOMES: A NOVEL VESICULAR CARRIER FOR IMPROVED TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY
Objective: Transdermal drug delivery system appears to be the most vital drug delivery system because of its conveniences over already established and accepted systems. Various strategies can be used to augment the transdermal delivery which includes iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and different vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes. In recent years, the vesicular systems have been encouraged as a mean of sustained or controlled release of drugs. By using the concept of rational membrane design we have recently developed special complex bodies, known as transfersomes which overcome the transportation problem.
Conclusion: Transfersomes were first introduced in the early 1990s as a form of an elastic or deformable vesicle. Elasticity is generated by incorporation of an edge activator in the lipid bilayer structure. Transfersome composed of an amphipathic ingredient such as phosphatidylcholine, other component is bilayer softening component such as a surfactant, along with lipid and surfactant, the preparation method for transfersome also alcohol as a solvent in various ratio and water or phosphate buffer solutions for hydration of vesicles. The transfersomal system was much more efficient among all these strategies. These can deform and easily pass through a narrow constriction (from 5 to 10 times less than their own diameter) without high loss of entrapped drugs. The system can be characterized by in-vitro for vesicle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, degree of deformability, number of vesicles per cubic mm and in-vitro permeability through the skin, etc. The deformability characteristic of transfersomes gives better permeation of drugs through the skin. Transfersome is pertinent in the field of insulin delivery, corticosteroid delivery, delivery of protein and peptide, also serve as a carrier for anticancer drug, anesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and herbal drug.
2. Harunusman Patel, Dr. Upendra Patel, Bhavin Bhimani Daslaniya, Ghanshyam Patel; Transdermal drug delivery system as prominent Dosage forms for the highly; International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bio-science, 2012; 1(3): 42- 65.
3. Sharma N, Agarwal G, Rana AC, Bhat Z, and Kumar D: A Review: Transdermal drug delivery system: A tool for novel drug delivery system. International Journal of Drug Development and Research 2011; 3: 70-84
4. Patel RP and Baria AH: Formulation and evaluation considerations of transdermal drug delivery system. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2011; 3: 1-9.
5. Vinod KR, Sarvani P, Banji D, and Teja BB: Transdermal drug delivery system over coming challenges of popular drug delivery system. International Journal of Pharma World Research, 2010; 1: 1-14.
6. P.T. Pugliese. Physiology of the Skin, chapter 1, Allured Publishing Corporation, 2001:1-2.
7. B. Alberts, D. Bray, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, and P. Walter. Essential Cell Biology, 1998: 601.
8. Takanori Igarashi, Ko Nishino, and Shree K. Nayar The Appearance of Human Skin, the Skin Care Research Laboratory of Kao Corporation, Japan, 2006: 3-17.
9. W.F. Lever and G.Schaumburg-Lever. Histopathology of the skin. J.B.Lippincott Company, seventh edition, 1990.
10. D. Batisse, R. Bazin, T. Baldeweck, B. Querleux, and J.L. Leveque. Influence of age on the wrinkling capacities of skin. Skin Research and Technology, 2002; (8): 148–154.
11. Ting WW, Vest CD, Sontheimer RD Review of traditional and novel modalities that enhance the permeability of local therapeutics across the stratum conium. Int J Dermatol 2004; 43(7): 538-47.
12. W.F. Lever and G.Schaumburg-Lever. Histopathology of the skin. J.B.Lippincott Company, seventh edition, 1990.
13. Shashank J, Niketkumar P, Mansi KS, et al., Recent advances in lipid-based vesicles and particulate carriers for topical and transdermal application. J Pharm Sci. 2016; 116: 1
14. Honeywell-Nguyen PL, Bouwstra JA. Vesicles as a tool for transdermal and dermal delivery. Drug Discovery Today: Technologies. 2005, 2(1): 67-74
15. Schatzlein A, Cevc G, “Skin penetration by phospholipids vesicles, Transfersomes as visualized by means of the Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy, in characterization, metabolism, and novel biological applications”, AOCS Press, 1995, 191-209.
16. Walve JR, Bakliwal SR, Rane BR, Pawar SP, “Transfersomes: A surrogated carrier for transdermal drug delivery system”, International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2011, 2 (1), 201-214.
17. Modi CD, Bharadia PD. Transfersomes: New dominants for transdermal drug delivery, am. j. pharmtech res. 2012, 2 (3), 71-91
18. Sheo DM, Shweta A, Ram CD, Ghanshyam M, Girish K, Sunil KP. Transfersomes- a novel vesicular carrier for enhanced transdermal delivery of stavudine: development, characterization and performance evaluation, J. Scientific Speculations and Res. 2010, 1 (1), 30-36
19. Maghraby EI, Williams GM, Barry BW. Skin delivery of oestradiol from lipid vesicles: importance of liposome structure, International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2000, 204 (1-2), 159-69.
20. Buysschaert M. Optimized Insulin Delivery: Achievements and Limitations, DiabeteMetabol.1989;15:188-203.
21. Gupta A., Aggarawal G., Singla S., Rora R., A, “Transfersomes: A Novel Vesicular Carrier for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Sertraline: Development, Characterization and Performance Evaluation," Sci Pharm, 2012; 80: 1061-1080
22. Kavitha K, Bharath N, Mani T T., "Physical Permeation Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery "Research of Journal of pharmaceutical, Biological, and Chemical Sciences, October- December 2011; 2(4): 66.
23. Dave V., Kumar D., Lewis S., Paliwal S., “Ethosome for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery of Aceclofenac” International Journal of Drug Delivery, 2010; 2: 81-92.
24. Kumar R., Philip A. “Modified Transdermal Technologies: Breaking the Barriers of Drug Permeation via the Skin” Page no.1-15.
25. Patel R, Singh SK, Singh S, Sheth NR, Gendle R, "Development and Characterization of Curcumin Loaded Transfersome for Transdermal Delivery” J. Pharm Sci. Res., 2009, 1 (4), 71-80.
26. Sheo DM, Shweta A, Vijay KT, Ram CD, Aklavya S, Ghanshyam M, “Enhanced Transdermal delivery of indinavir sulfate via transfersomes”, Pharmacie Globale (IJCP), 2010, 1 (06), 1-7.
27. Lum K., Chandler D., Weeks J.D. Hydrophobicity at small and large length scales. J. Phys. Chem. B. 1999, 103, 4570-4577.
28. Cevc G, Gebauer D. Hydration-driven transport of deformable lipid vesicles through fine pores and the skin barrier. Biophysical Journal, 1984 (4): 1010-1024.
29. Irfan M, Verma S, Ram A. Preparation and Characterization of Ibuprofen loaded transfersomes as a novel carrier for Transdermal drug delivery, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2012:5(3): 162-165.
30. Pandey S, Goyani M, Devmurari V, Fakir J, “Transfersomes: A Novel Approach for Transdermal Drug Delivery”, Der Pharmacia Letter, 2009, 1 (2), 143-150.
31. Nanda A, Nanda S, Dhall M, Rao R. Transfersomes-A Novel Ultradeformable Vesicular Carrier for Transdermal Drug Delivery. Transdermal delivery. 2005; 5 (9).
32. Jalon GE. Ygartua P, Santoyo S, “Topical application of acyclovir-loaded microparticles: quantification of the drug in porcine skin layers”, J.Control Release, 2001, 75, 191-197.
33. Sheo DM, Shweta A, Ram CD, Ghanshyam M, Girish K, Sunil KP “Transfersomes- a Novel Vesicular Carrier for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Stavudine: Development, Characterization and Performance Evaluation”, J. Scientific Speculations and Res., 2010, 1 (1), 30-36.
34. DoaaA, Dalia R, Sally H and Mohamed N. Formulation and evaluation of fluconazole topical gel. International journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2012, 4, 176-183.
35. Merin P. Eldhose, Flowerlet M, Neethusha J, Transfersomes – A Review, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016, 6(4), 436-452.
36. Benson HA, “Transfersomes for transdermal drug delivery”, Expert Opin. Drug Deliv., 2006, 3 (6), 727-37.
Copyright (c) 2019 Aysha Arshad
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.