THE ADIPONECTIN AS A CLINICAL INDICATOR AND AS A THERAPEUTIC AGENT
Worldwide, there are a number of biological active proteins known as adipokines, which were secreted from adipose tissues. Adiponectin is the most important one of them, which plays a major role in pathogenesis, and recently acts as a modulation in many syndrome and metabolism, like inflammation, obesity which is the major health problem and increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease as well as respiratory disorders, diabetes and cancers. The main cause of cardiovascular disease is hypertention it’s also leads to the mortality and morbidity. It suggested that the correlation between hypertensive people have lower Adiponectin levels than normal adults and the levels increasing when reduce risk of hypertension, in human, adipose tissue is the largest metabolic active compartment, which regulates many biological functions.
2. Scherer PE, Williams S, Fogliano M,Baldini G, Lodish HF.: A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1995; 270(45): 26746-26749.
3. Kern PA, di Gregorio GB, Lu T,Rassouli N, Ranganathan G: Adiponectin expression from human adipose tissue: relation to obesity, insulin resistance , and tumor necrosis factor- α expression. Diabetes. 2003; 52(7):1779-1785.
4. Daniele A, Cammarata R, Masullo M, et al: analysis of Adiponectin gene and comparsion of its expression in twon different pig breeds obesity. 2008; 16(8): 1869-1874.
5. Cheng X, Folco E J, Shimizu K. Adiponectin induces proinflammatory programs in human macrophages and CD4 T cells.J. Biol.chem .2012.287, 36896-36904.
6. Kumada M, Kihara S, Ouchi N, Kobayashi H, Okamoto Y, Ohashi K, etal.: Adiponectin specifically increased tisuue inhibitor of metallo proteinase-1 through interleukin-10 expression in human macrophages. Circulation.2004.109, 2046-2049.
7. Daniele A, Cammarata R, Masullo M, Nerone G, Finamore F, D'Andrea M, etal.: Analysis of Adiponectin gene and comparison of its expression in two different pig breeds. Obesity. 2008. 16(8). 1869-1874.
8. Matsuzawa y, funahashi T, Nakamura T: Molecular mechanism of metabolic syndrome X: Contribution of adipocytokines, adipocyte- derived bioactive substances. Ann N Y Acad Sc; 1999.892:146-154.
9. Friedman JM: Obesity in the new millennium. Nature 2000.404: 632-634.
10. Hotamisligil GS: The role of TNF-α and TNG receptors in obesity and insulin resistance> J Intern Med.1999. 245:621-625.
11. Shimomura I, Funahashi T, Takahashi M, Maeda K, Kotani K, Nakamura T, et al; Enhanced expression of PAI-1 in visceral fat: possible contributor to vascular disease in obesity. Nat Med. 1996.2: 800-803.
12. White RT, Damm D, Hancock N, Rosen BS, Lowell BB, Usher P, et al: Human adipsin is identical to complement factor D and is expressed in high levels in adipose tissue . J Biol Chem. 1992. 267: 9210-9213.
13. Steppan CM, Bailey ST, Bhat S,Brown EJ, Banerjce RR, Wright CM, et al: The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes. Nature. 2001. 409: 307-312.
14. Maeda K, Okubo K, Shimomura I, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Matsubara K:cDNA cloning and expression of a novel adipose specific collagen – like factor , apM1 (adipose most abundant gene transcript 1).Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996.221:286-289.
15. Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR.: Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Mol cell Endocrinal. 2010; 316: 129-139.
16. Maury E, Brichard SM.: Adipokine dysregulation , adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Mol cell Endocrinol 2010, 314:1-16.
17. Daniele A, De Rosa A, De Cristofaro M, Monaco ML, Masullo M, Porcile C, et al.: Decreased concentration of Adiponectin together with a selective reduction of its high molecular weight oligomers is involved in metabolic complications of myotonic dystrophy type 1. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2011; 165(6):969-975.
18. Villarreal- Molina MT, Antuna- Puente B.: Adiponectine: anti- inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. Biochimie. 2012; 94(10):2143-2149.
19. Nigro E, Scudiero O, Sarnataro D, Mazzarella G, Sofia M, Bianco A, etal. : Adiponectin affects lung epithelial A549 Cell Viability counteracting TNFα and IL-1BToxicity through AdipoR1. Biology . 2013; 45(6):1145-1153.
20. Ouchi N, Walsh K.: Adiponectin as an anti-inflammatory factor. Clinica Chimica Acta.2007; 380(1-2):24-30.
21. Yokota T, Oritani K, Takahashi I, Ishikawa J, Matsuyama A, Ouchi N, et al: Adiponectin , a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens , negatively regulates the growth of myelomonocytic progenitors and the functions of macrophages. Blood 2000, 96: 1723-1732.
22. Ouchi N, Kihara S, Arita Y, Nishida M, Matsuyama A, Okamoto Y, et al.: Adipocyte derived plasma protein , Adiponectin , suppresses lipid accumulation and class A scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte derived macrophages> Circulation 2001, 103: 1057-1063.
23. Okamoto Y, Kihara S, Funahshi T, Matsuzawa Y and Libby P. Adiponectin: a key adipocytokine in metabolic syndrome. Clinical Science (2006) 110, 267–278 . doi:10.1042/CS20050182
24. Daniele A , Cammarata R , Masullo M , Nerone G , Finamore F , D'Andrea M, et al.: Analysis of Adiponectin gene and comparison of its expression in two different pig breeds. Obesity.2008; 16(8):1869-1874.
25. Kaser S, Tatarczyk T, Stadlmayr A, Ciardi C, Ress C, Tschoner A, etal. : Effect of obesity and insulin sensitivity on Adiponectin isoform distribution. European Journal of Clinical investigation.2008; 38(11); 827-834.
26. Caballero AE.: Endothelial dysfunction in obesity and isulin resistance: a road to diabetes and heart disease. Obesity Res. 2003; 11(11):1278-89.
27. Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJ.: Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet. 2002; 360:1347-1360.
28. Demirci H,Nuhoglu C, Ursavas IS, Isildak S, Basaran ED, Kilic MY: Obisity and asymptomatic hypertension among children aged 6-13 years living in Bursa , Turkey . Family practice.2013; 30(6):629-633.
29. Kim NH, Cho NH, Yun CH, Lee SK, Yoon DW, Cho HJ, etal: Association of obstructive sleep a pnea and glucose metabolism in subjects with or without obesity. Diabetes care.2013; 36(12):3909-3915.
30. Ouchi N, Kihara S, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Walsh K.: Obesity, Adiponectin and vascular inflammatory disease. Current opinion in lipidology. 2003; 14(6): 561-566.
31. Iwashima Y, Katsuya T, Ishikawa K, Ouchi N, Ohishi M, Sugimoto K, etal.: Hypoadiponectinemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Hypertension. 2004; 43(6):1318-1323.
32. Kearney PM, Wbelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, whelton PK, He J.: Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data . Lancet . 2005; 365: 217-223.
33. Chen Z, Peng IC, Sun W, Su MI, Hsu PH, Fu Y, etal.: AMP – activated protein kinase functionally phosphorylates endothelial nitric oxide synthase ser 633. Circulation Research. 2009; 104(4): 496-505.
34. Ross R, : The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: A prespective for the 1990s: Nature 1993; 362:801.
35. Diaz Melean CM, Somears VK, Rodriguez- Escudero JP.: Mechanisms of adverse cardiometabolic consequences of obesity . current atherosclerosis reports. 2013; 15(11): p.364.
36. Choi SH, Hong ES, Lim S.: Clinical implications of adipocytokines and newly emerging metabolic factors with relation to insulin resistance and cardiovascular health. Frontiers in Endocrinology.2013; 4, 97.
37. Sattar N, Watt P, Cherry L, Ebrahim S, Smith GD, Lawlor DA.: High molecular weight Adiponectin is not associated with incident coronary heart disease in older women: a nested prospective case- control study. The journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2008; 93(5): 1846-1849.
38. Ouchi N, Kihara S, Arita Y, Maeda K, Kuriyama H, Okamoto Y, etal. Novel molecular for endothelial adhesion molecules: Adipocyte-derived plasma protein adiponectin. Circulation 1999; 100: 2473.
39. Matsuzawa Y, Funahashi T, Nakamura T.: Molecular mechanism of metabolic syndrome x: Contribution of adipocytokines, adipocyte- derived bioactive substances. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999.892:146-154.
40. Kuo SM, Halpern MM.: Lack of association between body mass index and plasma Adiponectin levels in healthy adults. Int J obes(Lond). 2011; 35(12): 1487-94.
41. Schauer IE, Snell – Bergeon JK, Bergman B, Maahs DM, Kretowski A, Eckel RH, et al: Insulin resistance, defective insulin- mediated fatty acid suppression, and coronary artery calcification in subjects with and without type-1 diabetes: the CACTI study. Diabetes. 2011.60:306-314.
42. Semple RK, Halberg NH, Burling K, Soos MA, Schraw T, Luan J, etal. Paradoxical elevation of high- molecular weight Adiponectin in acquired extreme insulin resistance due to insulin receptor antibodies diabetes. 2007; 56(6):1712-7.
43. Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, Takahashi M, Maeda K, Miyagawa J, et al.: Paradoxical decrease of an adipose specific protein, Adiponectin in obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999. 257:79-83.
44. Weyer C, Funahashi T, Tanaka S, Hotta K, Matsuzawa Y, Pratley RE, et al: Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with isulin resistance and hypreinsulinemia. J. clin endocrinol mtab. 2001. 86:1930-1935.
45. Sada KE, Yamasaki Y, Maruyama M, Sugiyama H, Yamamura M, Maeshima Y, et al: Altered levels of adipocytokines in association with insulin resistance in ptients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol.2006.33:1545-1552.
46. Maahs DM, Hamman RF, D'Agostino R Jr, Dolan LM, Imperatore G, Lawrence JM, etal. : The association between adiponectin- leptin ratio and diabetes type: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. J pediatr . 2009; 155(1):133-5.
47. Galler A, Gelbrich G, Kratzsch J, Noack N, Kapellen T, Kiess W: Elevated serum levels of Adiponectin in children , adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and the impact of age , gender, body mass index and metabolic control: a longitudinal study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007; 157(4): 481-9.
48. Singh S.: The Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review journal of scientific research, 2011.55, 35-48.
49. Sheng T , Yang K , :Adiponectin and its association with isulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. J. Genet. Genomics. 2008. 35, 321-326.
50. Stefan N, Vozarova B, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Weyer C, Linndsay R S, et al : plasma Adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosin phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole body insulin sensitivity in humans, Diabetes . 51(6)-2000.1884-1888.
51. Lindsay R S, Funahashi T, Hanson R L, Matsuzawa S. Tanaka P, Tataranni A, et al: Adiponectin and development of type 2 diabetes in the pima Indian population, Lancet 360.2002.57-58.
52. Kubota N, Terauchi Y, Yamauchi T, Kubota T, Moroi M, Matsui J, et al : Distruption of Adiponectin causes insulin resistance and neointimal formation, J. Biol. Chem. 277(29).2002.25863-25866.
53. Jung U J, Choi M S : Obesity and its metabolic complications : The role of adipokines and the relationship between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance , dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15(4). 2014.6184-6223.
54. Chow W S, Cheung B M, Tso A W, Xu A, Wat N M, Fong C H, et al: Hypoadiponectinemia as a predictor for the development of hypertension : a 5 year prospective study, Hypertension 49(6).2007.1455-1461.
55. Orchard T J,Olson J O, Erbey J R, Williams K , Forrest K Y,Smithline Kinder L, et al,: Insulin resistance- related factors, but not glycemia, predict coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes. 10- years foll up data from the Pittsburgh epidemiology of diabetes complication study, Diabetes care 26(5).2003.1374-1379.
56. Ghosh S, Collier A, Hair M, Malik I, Elhadd T, Metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes, Int. J. Diabetes, Mellit. 2(1).201038-42.
57. Pischon T, Girman C J, Hotamisligil G S, Rifar N, Rimm F B,: Plasma Adiponectin levels and risk of myocardial infarction in men. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 291(14).2004.1730-1737.
58. Choi S H, Hong ES, Lim S,: Clinical implications of adipocytokines and newly emerging metabolic factors with relation to insulin resistance and cardiovascular health, front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne)4. 2013.97.
59. Zou C, Shao J. Role of adipocytokines in obesity associated insulin resistance, J. Nutr. Biochem. 19(5).2008.277-286.
60. Kadowaki T, Yamauchi T: Adiponectin receptors, Endocr, Rv.26(3).2005.439-451.
61. Ouchi N, Kihara S, Arita Y, Maeda K, Kuriyama H, Hotta K, et al : Adiponectin, an adipocyte. Derived plasma protein, inhibits endothelial NF- KappaB signaling through a cAMP dependent pathway, circulation 102(11).2000.1296-1301.
62. Broeble U C, Lebherz C, Lehrke M, Stark R, Greif M, Becker A, et al,: Low Adiponectin levels are an independent predictor of mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques, PLOS one 4 . 2009.e4733.
63. Matsuzawa Y, Funahashi T, Kihara S, Shimomura I.: Adiponectin and metabolic syndrome. Arteriocler-Thomb. Vasc. Biol.2004; 24: 29-33.
64. Chandran M, Phillips SA, Ciaraldi T. Henry RR.: Adiponectin : more than just another fat cell hormone. Diabetes care 2003; 26:2442-50.
65. Kadowaki T. Yamauchi T. : Adiponectin and Adiponectin receptors. Endocr. Rev. 2005; 26: 439-51.
66. Mather KJ, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Edelstein S, Bray GA, Kahn SE, etal.: Adiponectin, Chang in Adiponectin and progression to diabetes in the diabetes prevention program. Diabetes 2008; 57: 980-6.
67. Woo YC, Tso AW, Xu A, Law LS, Fong CH, Lam TH, etal.: Combined use of serum Adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor- alpha 2 levels was comparable to 2 hour post- load glucose in diabetes prediction. PLOS one 2012; 7: e36868.
68. Rayman MP, Blundell-Pound G, Pastor-Barriuso R, Guallar E, Steinbrenner H, Stranges S. A randomized trial of selenium supplementation and risk of type 2 diabetes, as assessed by plasma adiponectin. PLOS one 2012; 7: e45269.
69. Sattar N, Wannamethee G, Sarwar N, Tchernova J, Cherry L, Wallace AM, etal. : Adiponectin and coronary heart disease: A prospective study and meta analysis. Circulation 2006; 114: 623-9.
70. Kappelle PJ, Dullaart RP, van Beek AP, Hillege HL, Wolffenbuttel BH. The plasma leptin/ Adiponectin ratio predicts first cardiovascular event in men: a prospective nested case- control study. European journal of Internal Medicine 2012; 23:755-9.
71. Baessler A, Schlossbauer S, Stark K, Strack C, Riegger G, Schunkert H, etal.: Adiponectin multimeric forms but not total Adiponectin levels are associated with myocardial infarction in non-diabetic men. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 2011; 18: 616-27.
72. Von Eynatten M, Humpert PM, Bluemm A, Lepper PM, Hamann A, Allolio B, etal. : High- molecular weight Adiponectin is independently associated with the extent of coronary artery disease in men. Athersclerosis 2008; 199: 123-8.
73. Laughlin GA1, Barrett-Connor E, May S, Langenberg C: Association of Adiponectin with coronary heart disease and mortality : The Rancho Bemardo Study . American Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 165:164-74.
74. Housa D, Housova J, Vernerova Z, Haluzik M : Adipocytokines and cancer, Physiol. Res. 55;2006.233.
75. Petridou E, Mantzoros C, Dessypris N, Dikalioti S, Trichopoulos D, : Adiponectin in relation to childhood myeloblastic leukaemia. Br. J. Cancer.2006; 94: 156-60.
76. Ishikawa M, Kitayama J, Kazama S, Hiramatsu T, Hatano K, Nagawa H, : Plasma Adiponectin and gastric cancer. Clin. Cancer Res.2005; 11:466-72.
77. Wei EK, Giovannucci E, Fuchs CS, Willett WC, Mantzoros CS, : Low plasma Adiponectin levels and risk of colorectal cancer in men : a prospective study. J. Natl. Cncer Inst, 2005; 97:1688-94.
78. Goktas S, Yilmaz MI, Caglar K, Sonmez A, Kilic S, Bedir S, : Prostate cancer and adiponectin. Urology 2005; 65: 1168-72.
79. Miyoshi Y, Funahashi T, Kihara S, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Matsuzawa Y, etal. Association of serum Adiponectin levels with breast cancer risk. Clin. Cancer Res. 2003; 9: 5699-704.
80. Calle EE, Kaaks R.: Overweight obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2004; 4: 579-91.
81. Hascoet S, Elbaz M, Bongard V , Bouisset F, Verdier C, Vindis C, etal.: Adiponectin and long term mortality in coronary artery disease participants and controls. Arterio sclerosis thrombosis and vascular biology 2013; 33:e19-29.
82. Wannamethee SG, Welsh P, Whincup PH, Sawar N, Thomas MC, etal. : High Adiponectin and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in asymptomatic older men: does NT- ProBNP help to explain this association. European Journal of cardiovascular prevention and re habititation 2011; 18:65-71.
83. Dieplinger B, Haltmayer M, Poelz W. : Value of Adiponectin as predictor of 5 year all cause mortality in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease : results from the linz peripheral arterial disease (LIPAD) study. Clinica Chimica Acta 2009; 408:87-91.
84. Tamura T, Furukawa Y, Taniguchi R, Sato Y, Ono K, Horiuchi H, etal.: Serum Adiponectin level as an independent predctor of mortality in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation Journal 2007; 71:623-30.
85. Tsutamoto T, Tanaka T, Sakai H, Ishikawa C, Fujii M, Yamamoto T, etal, : Total and high molecular weight Adiponectin , haemodynamics , and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. European Heart Journal 2007; 28: 1723-30.
86. MacDonald I J, Liu S, Huang C-C, Kuo S-J, Tsai C-H and Tang C-H. Associations between Adipokines in Arthritic Disease and Implications for Obesity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1505; doi:10.3390/ijms20061505
Copyright (c) 2019 Noor al-huda Saeed
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.