POVERTY AND DISEASE: ARE THEY THE MAJOR IMPEDIMENTS IN SUB–SAHARAN AFRICA?
POVERTY RELATED DISEASES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Background: This was a review of poverty related infections in Sub–Saharan Africa. Neglected tropical diseases and infectious diseases of poverty are employed to define a number of infectious diseases more commonly found in areas where poverty is high. Poverty related infections describe those infections which are more prevalent in low–income populations while NTDs are said to be historically overlooked diseases at the community, national international levels and are endemic in many resource–poor populations and developing countries. The Sub–Saharan Africa has the greatest burden of these infections in the world; a region with the world’s poorest people.
Method: Information for this review came from a comprehensive search of titles related to poverty related infections, HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, infection in Sub–Saharan Africa using PUBMED and other bibliographic databases. The abstracts of relevant articles and full articles available on line were accessed and references were reviewed to extend the search.
Result: Available data show that the major poverty related infections are malaria, HIV and tuberculosis with Sub–Saharan Africa bearing the greatest burdens of these infections. NTDs also have great impact in this region even though the burden is not as much as the collective effects of malaria, HIV and tuberculosis. These infections have negatively affected millions of people with more persons still infected and risk factors associated with these infections include poor shelter, poor sanitation, lack of potable water, malnutrition, lack of access to quality medical services and cultural beliefs.
Conclusion: There is therefore need to formulate and enforce policies by the governments and every other stakeholder as well as need for interventions that will change the existing cultural beliefs on infections in order to promote the health conditions of those living in Sub–Saharan Africa and every other vulnerable society of the world.
 Chen SH, Ravallion M. The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. 2008; 4703 (WPS 4703), Available: http://www-wds. worldbank.org. [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Sachs J. The end of poverty: economic possibilities for our time. European Journal of Dental Education. 2008; 12: 17-21. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0579.2007.00476.x
 International Policy Network (IPN). 2004. Diseases of poverty and the 10/90 gap. http://www.who.int/intellectualproperty/Submissions/ InternationalPolicyNetwork.pdf. [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
. Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH, Fenwick A, Kumaresan J, Sachs SE. Control of neglected tropical diseases. Engl J Med. 2007; 357, 1018–1027. 10.1056/NEJMra064142.
. Liese B, Rosenberg M, Schratz A. Programmes, partnerships, and governance for elimination and control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet. 2010; 375, 67–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(09)61749-9.
. Molyneux DH. Neglected tropical diseases—beyond the tipping point? Lancet. 2010; 375, 34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61914-0.
 Molyneux DH, Hotez PJ, Fenwick A. Rapid-impact interventions: how a policy of integrated control for Africa’s neglected tropical diseases could benefit the poor. PLoS Med. 2005; 2(11): e336. Doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020336.
 Fenwick A. New initiatives against Africa’s worms. Trans R Soc TropMed Hyg. 2006; 100, 200–207.
 Fenwick A, Molyneux D, Nantulya V. Achieving the millenniumdevelopment goals. Lancet. 2005; 365(9464), 1029–1030. 10.1016/0140-6736(05)71134-X
 Olsen A. Efficacy and safety of drug combinations in the treatment ofschistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis and oncho-cerciasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007; 101(8), 747–758. 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.03.006.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2012. Global report for research on infectious diseases of poverty.http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44850/1/9789241564489_eng.pdf. [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2004. World Health Report 2004, Statistical Annex.
 Bello AI, Asiedu EN, Adegoke BOA, Quartey JNA, Appiah-Kubi KO, Bertha OB. Nosocomial infections: knowledge and source of information among clinical health care students in Ghana. Int. J. Gen. Med. 2011; 4, 571–74.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2002. World Health Report 2002: reducing risks, promoting Healthy Life. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42510/WHR_2002.pdf?sequence=1
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2004. World health report 2004 - changing history. 2004. Burden of disease in DALYs by cause, sex and mortality stratum in WHO regions, estimates for 2002. Geneva: WHO. Annex Table 3, 126–131. Available: http://www.who.int/whr/2004/en/. [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2012. Management of severe malaria: a practical handbook, (3rd ed). http://www.who.int/malaria [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Centre for Disease Control (CDC). 2018. Malaria https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/ index.html [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Gordon SV & Parish T. Microbe Profile: Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Humanity's deadly microbial foe. Microbiolog. 2018; 164(4), 437–39. Doi:10.1099/mic.0.000601
 Center for Disease Control (CDC). 2016. How TB Spreads. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/howtbspreads.htm [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Weiss RA. How does HIV cause AIDS? Science. 1993; 260(5112): 1273–79. Doi:10.1126/science.8493571.
 Douek DC, Roederer M, Koup RA. Emerging Concepts in the Immunopathogenesis of AIDS. Annual Review of Medicine. 2009; 60, 471–84. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.60.041807.123549
 United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). 2007. AIDS Epidemic Update 2007.
 Mabuka J, Nduati R, Odem-Davis K, Peterson D, Overbaugh J. HIV-Specific Antibodies Capable of ADCC Are Common in Breast milk and Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Transmission in Women with High Viral Loads. PLOS Pathogens. 2012.8(6): e1002739. Doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002739.
 Hahn, RA, Inhorn MC. Anthropology and public health: bridging differences in culture and society. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2009.
 United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2018. UNAIDS Data 2018. https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/unaids-data-2018_en.pdf [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2018. World Malaria Report 2018. https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2018/en/ [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2018. Global Tuberculosis Report 2018. https://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/ [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Mead MN. Contaminants in human milk: weighing the risks against the benefits of breastfeeding. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2008; 116(10), A426–34. doi:10.1289/ehp.116-a426.
 European Alliance against Malaria (EAM) 2007. Malaria and Poverty. www.europeanallianceagainstmalaria [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2005. 2005 World Malaria Report. http://who/rbm/unicef [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Crosse M. Global malaria control: U.S. and multinational investments and implementation challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office; 2005.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2004. Malaria Epidemics: Forecasting, prevention, early detection and control.
 Ingstad B, Munthali A, Braathen S, Grut L. The evil circle of poverty: a qualitative study of malaria and disability. Malaria Journal. 2012; 11: 15.
 Whitworth J, Morgan D, Quigley M.Effect of HIV-1 and increasing immunosuppression on malaria parasitaemia and clinical episodes in adults in rural Uganda: a cohort study. Lancet. 2000; 356(9235), 1051–56. Doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02727-6.
 Hoffman IF, Jere CS, Taylor TE. The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on HIV-1 RNA blood plasma concentratio. AIDS. 1999; 13(4), 487–94. doi:10.1097/00002030-199903110-00007.
 Rowland-Jones SL,Lohman B. Interactions between malaria and HIV infection-an emerging public health problem? Microbes Infect. 2002; 4(12), 1265–70. Doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(02)01655-6.
 Abu-Raddad LJ, Patnaik P, Kublin JG. Dual infection with HIV and malaria fuels the spread of both diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Science. 2006; 314(5805), 1603–06. doi:10.1126/science.1132338.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2005. WHO annual report on Global HIV/AIDS overview.
 United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). 2004. World AIDS Campaign 2004: women, girls, HIV and AIDS. http://data.unaids.org/WAC/wac-2004_strategynote_en.pdf.[Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Stillwaggon E. AIDS and the Ecology of Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2012. Global tuberculosis report 2012. http:// www.who.int/tb/publications/global_ report/en/ [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Singh AR, Singh SA. Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development. Mens Sana Monographs. 2008; 6(1): 187-225.
 RESULTS. 2009. World Health/Diseases of Poverty. https://web.archive.org/web/20090703171704/http://www.results.org/website/article.asp?id=238[Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA). 2002.HIV/AIDS and Poverty. UNFPA State of World Population 2002. https://www.unfpa.org/publications/state-world-population-2002 [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2019. Malaria. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Cohen MS, Hellmann N, Levy JA, DeCock K, Lange J. The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic. J Clin Invest. 2008; 118, 1244–54.
 United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 2002. Health and Poverty. UNFPA State of World Population 2002.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2012. TDR disease-specific reference group on zoonotic and other infectious and marginalized diseases. World Health Organization/Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), in preparation.
 United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNFPA). 2008. Water and sanitation. http://www.unicefusa.org/work/water/ [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF). 2005. Common water and sanitation-related diseases.
 Stillwaggon E. Race, Sex, and the Neglected Risks for Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa. Feminist Economics. 2008; 14(4): 67–86. doi:10.1080/13545700802262923.
 Walsh JA, Kenneth SW. Selective primary health care: An interim strategy for disease control in developing countries. Medical Economics. 1980; 14(2): 145–63.
 Piwoz EG, Preble EA. HIV/AIDS and Nutrition: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Nutritional Care and Support in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development; 2002.
 Nimmagadda A, O'Brien WA, Goetz MB. The significance of vitamin A and carotenoid status in persons infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1998; 26(3), 711–18. Doi:10.1086/514565.
 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). 2011. Freeing Latin America and the Caribbean from hunger.
 Krieger J, Higgins DL. Housing and health: time again for public health action. American journal of public health. 2002; 92(5), 758–68.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2002. Medicines Strategy Report 2002–2003.http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip16e/whozip16e.pdf [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Roll Back Malaria Partnership (2012). Economic costs of malaria. https://www.malariaconsortium.org/userfiles/file/Malaria%20resources/RBM%20Economic%20costs%20of%20malaria.pdf. [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). 2012. World Bank and HIV/AIDS: The Facts; 2012. http:// www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/factsheets/ [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, ShibuyaK, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012; 380 (9859), 2095–128.
 United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). 2012. Sub-Saharan Africa, in Regional Fact Sheet 2012, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). http:// www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2012/gr2012/2012_FS_regional_ssa_en.pdf. [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). 2012. World AIDS Day report: Results, 2012, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS): Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/publications/2012/name,76120,en.asp. [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS). 2013. UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2012. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/campaigns/ globalreport2013/globalreport/ [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2010. Dept. of Control of Neglected Tropical, Diseases: Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: first WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44440/9789241564090_eng.pdf?sequence=1 [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 Bloom G, Lucas H, Edun A, Lenneiye M, Milimo J. Health and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. 1999. https://www.ids.ac.uk/files/Wp103.pdf [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
 O’Farrell N. Enhanced efficiency of female tomale HIV transmission in core groups indeveloping countries: the need to target men. Sex Transm Dis. 2001; 28, 84–91.
 World Health Organization (WHO). 2008. Commission on the Social Determinants of Health final report: Closing the Gap in a Generation. https://www.who.int/social_determinants/final_report/csdh_finalreport_2008_execsumm.pdf [Access date: 2-5- 2019].
Copyright (c) 2019 Etefia Uwem Etefia, Solomon Ben
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.